JEL Classification Codes

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Jel code

A - General Economics and Teaching

A1 - General Economics

A10 - General
A11 - Role of Economics; Role of Economists; Market for Economists
A12 - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
A13 - Relation of Economics to Social Values
A14 - Sociology of Economics
A19 - Other

A2 - Economics Education and Teaching of Economics

A20 - General
A21 - Pre-college
A22 - Undergraduate
A23 - Graduate
A29 - Other

A3 - Multisubject Collective Works

A30 - General
A31 - Multisubject Collected Writings of Individuals
A32 - Multisubject Volumes
A39 - Other

B - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology

B0 - General

B00 - General

B1 - History of Economic Thought through 1925

B10 - General
B11 - Preclassical
B12 - Classical
B13 - Neoclassical through 1925
B14 - Socialist; Marxist
B15 - Historical; Institutional
B16 - Quantitative
B19 - Other

B2 - History of Economic Thought since 1925

B20 - General
B21 - Microeconomics
B22 - Macroeconomics
B23 - Econometrics; Quantitative Studies
B24 - Socialist; Marxist
B25 - Historical; Institutional; Evolutionary; Austrian
B29 - Other

B3 - History of Thought: Individuals

B30 - General
B31 - Individuals

B4 - Economic Methodology

B40 - General
B41 - Economic Methodology
B49 - Other

B5 - Current Heterodox Approaches

B50 - General
B51 - Socialist; Marxian; Sraffian
B52 - Institutional; Evolutionary
B53 - Austrian
B59 - Other

C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods

C0 - General

C00 - General

C1 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: General

C10 - General
C11 - Bayesian Analysis
C12 - Hypothesis Testing
C13 - Estimation
C14 - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods
C15 - Statistical Simulation Methods; Monte Carlo Methods; Bootstrap Methods
C16 - Specific Distributions
C19 - Other

C2 - Econometric Methods: Single Equation Models; Single Variables

C20 - General
C21 - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
C22 - Time-Series Models
C23 - Models with Panel Data
C24 - Truncated and Censored Models
C25 - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models
C29 - Other

C3 - Econometric Methods: Multiple/Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables

C30 - General
C31 - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
C32 - Time-Series Models
C33 - Models with Panel Data
C34 - Truncated and Censored Models
C35 - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models
C39 - Other

C4 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics

C40 - General
C41 - Duration Analysis
C42 - Survey Methods
C43 - Index Numbers and Aggregation
C44 - Statistical Decision Theory; Operations Research
C45 - Neural Networks and Related Topics
C49 - Other

C5 - Econometric Modeling

C50 - General
C51 - Model Construction and Estimation
C52 - Model Evaluation and Testing
C53 - Forecasting and Other Model Applications
C59 - Other

C6 - Mathematical Methods and Programming

C60 - General
C61 - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis
C62 - Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
C63 - Computational Techniques
C65 - Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools
C67 - Input–Output Models
C68 - Computable General Equilibrium Models
C69 - Other

C7 - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory

C70 - General
C71 - Cooperative Games
C72 - Noncooperative Games
C73 - Stochastic and Dynamic Games; Evolutionary Games
C78 - Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory
C79 - Other

C8 - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs

C80 - General
C81 - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data
C82 - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data
C87 - Econometric Software
C88 - Other Computer Software
C89 - Other

C9 - Design of Experiments

C90 - General
C91 - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
C92 - Laboratory, Group Behavior
C93 - Field Experiments
C99 - Other

D - Microeconomics

D0 - General

D00 - General
D01 - Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
D02 - Institutions: Design, Formation, and Operations

D1 - Household Behavior and Family Economics

D10 - General
D11 - Consumer Economics: Theory
D12 - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
D13 - Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation
D14 - Personal Finance
D18 - Consumer Protection
D19 - Other

D2 - Production and Organizations

D20 - General
D21 - Firm Behavior
D23 - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights
D24 - Production; Capital and Total Factor Productivity; Capacity
D29 - Other

D3 - Distribution

D30 - General
D31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
D33 - Factor Income Distribution
D39 - Other

D4 - Market Structure and Pricing

D40 - General
D41 - Perfect Competition
D42 - Monopoly
D43 - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
D44 - Auctions
D45 - Rationing; Licensing
D46 - Value Theory
D49 - Other

D5 - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium

D50 - General
D51 - Exchange and Production Economies
D52 - Incomplete Markets
D57 - Input–Output Tables and Analysis
D58 - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
D59 - Other

D6 - Welfare Economics

D60 - General
D61 - Allocative Efficiency; Cost–Benefit Analysis
D62 - Externalities
D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
D64 - Altruism
D69 - Other

D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making

D70 - General
D71 - Social Choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations
D72 - Economic Models of Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
D73 - Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption
D74 - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances
D78 - Positive Analysis of Policy-Making and Implementation
D79 - Other

D8 - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty

D80 - General
D81 - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
D82 - Asymmetric and Private Information
D83 - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge
D84 - Expectations; Speculations
D85 - Network Formation
D86 - Economics of Contract Law
D89 - Other

D9 - Intertemporal Choice and Growth

D90 - General
D91 - Intertemporal Consumer Choice; Life Cycle Models and Saving
D92 - Intertemporal Firm Choice and Growth, Investment, or Financing
D99 - Other

E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics

E0 - General

E00 - General
E01 - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth

E1 - General Aggregative Models

E10 - General
E11 - Marxian; Sraffian; Institutional; Evolutionary
E12 - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian
E13 - Neoclassical
E17 - Forecasting and Simulation
E19 - Other

E2 - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment

E20 - General
E21 - Consumption; Saving
E22 - Capital; Investment (including Inventories); Capacity
E23 - Production
E24 - Employment; Unemployment; Wages
E25 - Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
E26 - Informal Economy; Underground Economy
E27 - Forecasting and Simulation
E29 - Other

E3 - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles

E30 - General
E31 - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
E37 - Forecasting and Simulation
E39 - Other

E4 - Money and Interest Rates

E40 - General
E41 - Demand for Money
E42 - Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
E43 - Determination of Interest Rates; Term Structure of Interest Rates
E44 - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
E47 - Forecasting and Simulation
E49 - Other

E5 - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

E50 - General
E51 - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
E52 - Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects)
E58 - Central Banks and Their Policies
E59 - Other

E6 - Macroeconomic Policy Formation, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy, and General Outlook

E60 - General
E61 - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
E62 - Fiscal Policy; Public Expenditures, Investment, and Finance; Taxation
E63 - Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization
E64 - Incomes Policy; Price Policy
E65 - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
E66 - General Outlook and Conditions
E69 - Other

F - International Economics

F0 - General

F00 - General
F01 - Global Outlook
F02 - International Economic Order; Noneconomic International Organizations •Economic Integration and Globalization: General

F1 - Trade

F10 - General
F11 - Neoclassical Models of Trade
F12 - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies
F13 - Commercial Policy; Protection; Promotion; Trade Negotiations; International Organizations
F14 - Country and Industry Studies of Trade
F15 - Economic Integration
F16 - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
F17 - Trade Forecasting and Simulation
F18 - Trade and Environment
F19 - Other

F2 - International Factor Movements and International Business

F20 - General
F21 - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
F22 - International Migration
F23 - Multinational Firms; International Business
F29 - Other

F3 - International Finance

F30 - General
F31 - Foreign Exchange
F32 - Current Account Adjustment; Short-Term Capital Movements
F33 - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
F34 - International Lending and Debt Problems
F35 - Foreign Aid
F36 - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
F37 - International Finance Forecasting and Simulation
F39 - Other

F4 - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

F40 - General
F41 - Open Economy Macroeconomics
F42 - International Policy Coordination and Transmission
F43 - Economic Growth of Open Economies
F47 - Forecasting and Simulation
F49 - Other

G - Financial Economics

G0 - General

G00 - General

G1 - General Financial Markets

G10 - General
G11 - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
G12 - Asset Pricing
G13 - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
G14 - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies
G15 - International Financial Markets
G18 - Government Policy and Regulation
G19 - Other

G2 - Financial Institutions and Services

G20 - General
G21 - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Mortgages
G22 - Insurance; Insurance Companies
G23 - Pension Funds; Other Private Financial Institutions
G24 - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
G28 - Government Policy and Regulation
G29 - Other

G3 - Corporate Finance and Governance

G30 - General
G31 - Capital Budgeting; Investment Policy
G32 - Financing Policy; Capital and Ownership Structure
G33 - Bankruptcy; Liquidation
G34 - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
G35 - Payout Policy
G38 - Government Policy and Regulation
G39 - Other

H - Public Economics

H0 - General

H00 - General

H1 - Structure and Scope of Government

H10 - General
H11 - Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government
H19 - Other

H2 - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

H20 - General
H21 - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation
H22 - Incidence
H23 - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
H24 - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
H25 - Business Taxes and Subsidies
H26 - Tax Evasion
H27 - Other Sources of Revenue
H29 - Other

H3 - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

H30 - General
H31 - Household
H32 - Firm
H39 - Other

H4 - Publicly Provided Goods

H40 - General
H41 - Public Goods
H42 - Publicly Provided Private Goods
H43 - Project Evaluation; Social Discount Rate
H49 - Other

H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

H50 - General
H51 - Government Expenditures and Health
H52 - Government Expenditures and Education
H53 - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
H54 - Infrastructures; Other Public Investment and Capital Stock
H55 - Social Security and Public Pensions
H56 - National Security and War
H57 - Procurement
H59 - Other

H6 - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt

H60 - General
H61 - Budget; Budget Systems
H62 - Deficit; Surplus
H63 - Debt; Debt Management
H69 - Other

H7 - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations

H70 - General
H71 - State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
H72 - State and Local Budget and Expenditures
H73 - Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
H74 - State and Local Borrowing
H77 - Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism
H79 - Other

H8 - Miscellaneous Issues

H80 - General
H81 - Governmental Loans, Loan Guarantees, and Credits
H82 - Governmental Property
H83 - Public Administration
H87 - International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods
H89 - Other

I - Health, Education, and Welfare

I0 - General

I00 - General

I1 - Health

I10 - General
I11 - Analysis of Health Care Markets
I12 - Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality, Morbidity, Substance Abuse and Addiction, Disability, and Economic Behavior
I18 - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
I19 - Other

I2 - Education

I20 - General
I21 - Analysis of Education
I22 - Educational Finance
I23 - Higher Education Research Institutions
I28 - Government Policy
I29 - Other

I3 - Welfare and Poverty

I30 - General
I31 - General Welfare; Basic Needs; Living Standards; Quality of Life; Happiness
I32 - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
I38 - Government Policy; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
I39 - Other

J - Labor and Demographic Economics

J0 - General

J00 - General

J1 - Demographic Economics

J10 - General
J11 - Demographic Trends and Forecasts
J12 - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
J14 - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped
J15 - Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination
J16 - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
J17 - Value of Life; Foregone Income
J18 - Public Policy
J19 - Other

J2 - Time Allocation, Work Behavior, and Employment Determination and Creation; Human Capital

J20 - General
J21 - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
J22 - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
J23 - Employment Determination; Job Creation; Demand for Labor; Self-Employment
J24 - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
J26 - Retirement; Retirement Policies
J28 - Safety; Accidents; Industrial Health; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy
J29 - Other

J3 - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs

J30 - General
J31 - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials by Skill, Training, Occupation, etc.
J32 - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Private Pensions
J33 - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
J38 - Public Policy
J39 - Other

J4 - Particular Labor Markets

J40 - General
J41 - Contracts: Specific Human Capital, Matching Models, Efficiency Wage Models, and Internal Labor Markets
J42 - Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets
J43 - Agricultural Labor Markets
J44 - Professional Labor Markets and Occupations
J45 - Public Sector Labor Markets
J48 - Public Policy
J49 - Other

J5 - Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining

J50 - General
J51 - Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects
J52 - Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation; Collective Bargaining
J53 - Labor–Management Relations; Industrial Jurisprudence
J54 - Producer Cooperatives; Labor Managed Firms
J58 - Public Policy
J59 - Other

J6 - Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies

J60 - General
J61 - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
J62 - Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility
J63 - Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs
J64 - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
J65 - Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings
J68 - Public Policy
J69 - Other

J7 - Labor Discrimination

J70 - General
J71 – Discrimination
J78 - Public Policy
J79 - Other

J8 - Labor Standards: National and International

J80 - General
J81 - Working Conditions
J82 - Labor Force Composition
J83 - Workers' Rights
J88 - Public Policy
J89 - Other

K - Law and Economics

K0 - General

K00 - General

K1 - Basic Areas of Law

K10 - General
K11 - Property Law
K12 - Contract Law
K13 - Tort Law and Product Liability
K14 - Criminal Law
K19 - Other

K2 - Regulation and Business Law

K20 - General
K21 - Antitrust Law
K22 - Corporation and Securities Law
K23 - Regulated Industries and Administrative Law
K29 - Other

K3 - Other Substantive Areas of Law

K30 - General
K31 - Labor Law
K32 - Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
K33 - International Law
K34 - Tax Law
K35 - Personal Bankruptcy Law
K39 - Other

K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior

K40 - General
K41 - Litigation Process
K42 - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
K49 - Other

L - Industrial Organization

L0 - General

L00 - General

L1 - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

L10 - General
L11 - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
L12 - Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies
L13 - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
L14 - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation; Networks
L15 - Information and Product Quality; Standardization and Compatibility
L16 - Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics; Macroeconomic Industrial Structure; Industrial Price Indices
L19 - Other

L2 - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior

L20 - General
L21 - Business Objectives of the Firm
L22 - Firm Organization and Market Structure: Markets vs. Hierarchies; Vertical Integration; Conglomerates
L23 - Organization of Production
L24 - Contracting Out; Joint Ventures
L25 - Firm Performance: Size, Age, Profit, and Sales
L29 - Other

L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise

L30 - General
L31 - Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs
L32 - Public Enterprises
L33 - Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises; Privatization; Contracting Out
L39 - Other

L4 - Antitrust Issues and Policies

L40 - General
L41 - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
L42 - Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts
L43 - Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
L44 - Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprise, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations
L49 - Other

L5 - Regulation and Industrial Policy

L50 - General
L51 - Economics of Regulation
L52 - Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods
L53 - Government Promotion of Firms
L59 - Other

L6 - Industry Studies: Manufacturing

L60 - General
L61 - Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics
L62 - Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment
L63 - Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment
L64 - Other Machinery; Business Equipment; Armaments
L65 - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology
L66 - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco
L67 - Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather
L68 - Appliances; Other Consumer Durables
L69 - Other

L7 - Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction

L70 - General
L71 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels
L72 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources
L73 - Forest Products: Lumber and Paper
L74 - Construction
L78 - Government Policy
L79 - Other

L8 - Industry Studies: Services

L80 - General
L81 - Retail and Wholesale Trade; Warehousing; e-Commerce
L82 - Entertainment; Media (Performing Arts, Visual Arts, Broadcasting, Publishing, etc.)
L83 - Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism
L84 - Personal, Professional, and Business Services
L85 - Real Estate Services
L86 - Information and Internet Services; Computer Software
L87 - Postal and Delivery Services
L88 - Government Policy
L89 - Other

L9 - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities

L90 - General
L91 - Transportation: General
L92 - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation: Autos, Buses, Trucks, and Water Carriers; Ports
L93 - Air Transportation
L94 - Electric Utilities
L95 - Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities
L96 - Telecommunications
L97 - Utilities: General
L98 - Government Policy
L99 - Other

M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting

M0 - General

M00 - General

M1 - Business Administration

M10 - General
M11 - Production Management
M12 - Personnel Management
M13 - Entrepreneurship
M14 - Corporate Culture; Social Responsibility
M19 - Other

M2 - Business Economics

M20 - General
M21 - Business Economics
M29 - Other

M3 - Marketing and Advertising

M30 - General
M31 - Marketing
M37 - Advertising
M39 - Other

M4 - Accounting and Auditing

M40 - General
M41 - Accounting
M42 - Auditing
M49 - Other

M5 - Personnel Economics

M50 - General
M51 - Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions (hiring, firing, turnover, part-time, temporary workers, seniority issues)
M52 - Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects (stock options, fringe benefits, incentives, family support programs, seniority issues)
M53 - Training
M54 - Labor Management (team formation, worker empowerment, job design, tasks and authority, job satisfaction)
M55 - Labor Contracting Devices: Outsourcing; Franchising; Other
M59 - Other

N - Economic History

N0 - General

N00 - General
N01 - Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods

N1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Growth and Fluctuations

N10 - General, International, or Comparative
N11 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N12 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N13 - Europe: Pre-1913
N14 - Europe: 1913–
N15 - Asia including Middle East
N16 - Latin America; Caribbean
N17 - Africa; Oceania

N2 - Financial Markets and Institutions

N20 - General, International, or Comparative
N21 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N22 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N23 - Europe: Pre-1913
N24 - Europe: 1913–
N25 - Asia including Middle East
N26 - Latin America; Caribbean
N27 - Africa; Oceania

N3 - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Income, and Wealth

N30 - General, International, or Comparative
N31 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N32 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N33 - Europe: Pre-1913
N34 - Europe: 1913–
N35 - Asia including Middle East
N36 - Latin America; Caribbean
N37 - Africa; Oceania

N4 - Government, War, Law, and Regulation

N40 - General, International, or Comparative
N41 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N42 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N43 - Europe: Pre-1913
N44 - Europe: 1913–
N45 - Asia including Middle East
N46 - Latin America; Caribbean
N47 - Africa; Oceania

N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries

N50 - General, International, or Comparative
N51 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N52 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N53 - Europe: Pre-1913
N54 - Europe: 1913–
N55 - Asia including Middle East
N56 - Latin America; Caribbean
N57 - Africa; Oceania

N6 - Manufacturing and Construction

N60 - General, International, or Comparative
N61 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N62 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N63 - Europe: Pre-1913
N64 - Europe: 1913–
N65 - Asia including Middle East
N66 - Latin America; Caribbean
N67 - Africa; Oceania

N7 - Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services

N70 - General, International, or Comparative
N71 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N72 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N73 - Europe: Pre-1913
N74 - Europe: 1913–
N75 - Asia including Middle East
N76 - Latin America; Caribbean
N77 - Africa; Oceania

N8 - Micro-Business History

N80 - General, International, or Comparative
N81 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N82 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N83 - Europe: Pre-1913
N84 - Europe: 1913–
N85 - Asia including Middle East
N86 - Latin America; Caribbean
N87 - Africa; Oceania

N9 - Regional and Urban History

N90 - General, International, or Comparative
N91 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N92 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N93 - Europe: Pre-1913
N94 - Europe: 1913–
N95 - Asia including Middle East
N96 - Latin America; Caribbean
N97 - Africa; Oceania

O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth

O1 - Economic Development

O10 - General
O11 - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O12 - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O13 - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products
O14 - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
O15 - Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
O16 - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment
O17 - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements: Legal, Social, Economic, and Political
O18 - Regional, Urban, and Rural Analyses
O19 - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations

O2 - Development Planning and Policy

O20 - General
O21 - Planning Models; Planning Policy
O22 - Project Analysis
O23 - Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development
O24 - Trade Policy; Factor Movement Policy; Foreign Exchange Policy
O29 - Other

O3 - Technological Change; Research and Development

O30 - General
O31 - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
O32 - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
O33 - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
O34 - Intellectual Property Rights: National and International Issues
O38 - Government Policy
O39 - Other

O4 - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

O40 - General
O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
O42 - Monetary Growth Models
O47 - Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity
O49 - Other

O5 - Economywide Country Studies

O50 - General
O51 - U.S.; Canada
O52 - Europe
O53 - Asia including Middle East
O54 - Latin America; Caribbean
O55 - Africa
O56 - Oceania
O57 - Comparative Studies of Countries

P - Economic Systems

P0 - General

P00 - General

P1 - Capitalist Systems

P10 - General
P11 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P12 - Capitalist Enterprises
P13 - Cooperative Enterprises
P14 - Property Rights
P16 - Political Economy
P17 - Performance and Prospects
P19 - Other

P2 - Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies

P20 - General
P21 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P22 - Prices
P23 - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population
P24 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
P25 - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics; Housing; Transportation
P26 - Political Economy; Property Rights
P27 - Performance and Prospects
P28 - Natural Resources; Energy; Environment
P29 - Other

P3 - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions

P30 - General
P31 - Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions
P32 - Collectives; Communes; Agriculture
P33 - International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid
P34 - Financial Economics
P35 - Public Economics
P36 - Consumer Economics; Health, Education, Welfare, and Poverty
P37 - Legal Institutions; Illegal Behavior
P39 - Other

P4 - Other Economic Systems

P40 - General
P41 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P42 - Productive Enterprises; Factor and Product Markets; Prices; Population
P43 - Public Economics; Financial Economics
P44 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
P45 - International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid
P46 - Consumer Economics; Welfare and Poverty
P47 - Performance and Prospects
P48 - Political Economy •Legal Institutions; Property Rights
P49 - Other

P5 - Comparative Economic Systems

P50 - General
P51 - Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems
P52 - Comparative Studies of Particular Economies
P59 - Other

Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics

Q0 - General

Q00 - General
Q01 - Sustainable Development

Q1 - Agriculture

Q10 - General
Q11 - Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices
Q12 - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
Q13 - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
Q14 - Agricultural Finance
Q15 - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation
Q16 - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Agricultural Extension Services
Q17 - Agriculture in International Trade
Q18 - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
Q19 - Other

Q2 - Renewable Resources and Conservation

Q20 - General
Q21 - Demand and Supply
Q22 - Fishery; Aquaculture
Q23 - Forestry
Q24 - Land
Q25 - Water
Q26 - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
Q28 - Government Policy
Q29 – Other

Q3 - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation

Q30 - General
Q31 - Demand and Supply
Q32 - Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development
Q34 - Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
Q33 - Resource Booms
Q38 - Government Policy
Q39 - Other

Q4 - Energy

Q40 - General
Q41 - Demand and Supply
Q42 - Alternative Energy Sources
Q43 - Energy and the Macroeconomy
Q48 - Government Policy
Q49 - Other

Q5 - Environmental Economics

Q50 - General
Q51 - Valuation of Environmental Effects
Q52 - Pollution Control Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects
Q53 - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste • Recycling
Q54 - Climate; Natural Disasters
Q55 - Technological Innovation
Q56 - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounting
Q57 - Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services; Biodiversity Conservation; Bioeconomics
Q58 - Government Policy
Q59 - Other

R - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics

R0 - General

R00 - General

R1 - General Regional Economics

R10 - General
R11 - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, and Changes
R12 - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade
R13 - General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies
R14 - Land Use Patterns
R15 - Econometric and Input–Output Models; Other Models
R19 - Other

R2 - Household Analysis

R20 - General
R21 - Housing Demand
R22 - Other Demand
R23 - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
R29 - Other

R3 - Production Analysis and Firm Location

R30 - General
R31 - Housing Supply and Markets
R32 - Other Production and Pricing Analysis
R33 - Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets
R34 - Input Demand Analysis
R38 - Government Policies; Regulatory Policies
R39 - Other

R4 - Transportation Systems

R40 - General
R41 - Transportation: Demand; Supply; Congestion; Safety and Accidents
R42 - Government and Private Investment Analysis
R48 - Government Pricing; Regulatory Policies
R49 - Other

R5 - Regional Government Analysis

R50 - General
R51 - Finance in Urban and Rural Economies
R52 - Land Use and Other Regulations
R53 - Public Facility Location Analysis; Public Investment and Capital Stock
R58 - Regional Development Policy
R59 - Other

Y: Miscellaneous Categories

Y1           Data: Tables and Charts

                Y10         Data: Tables and Charts


Y2           Introductory Material

                Y20         Introductory Material


Y3           Book Reviews (unclassified)

                Y30         Book Reviews (unclassified)


Y4           Dissertations (unclassified)

                Y40         Dissertations (unclassified)


Y5           Further Reading (unclassified)

                Y50         Further Reading (unclassified)


Y6           Excerpts

                Y60         Excerpts


Y7           No Author General Discussions

                Y70         No Author General Discussions


Y8           Related Disciplines

                Y80         Related Disciplines


Y9           Other

                Y90         Other

                Y91         Pictures and Maps

                Y92         Novels, Self-Help Books, etc.

Z: Other Special Topics


Z00         General


Z1           Cultural Economics • Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology

                Z10         General

                Z11         Economics of the Arts and Literature

                Z12         Religion

                Z13         Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology • Language • Social and Economic Stratification

                Z18         Public Policy

                Z19         Other


Z2           Sports Economics

                Z20         General

                Z21         Industry Studies

                Z22         Labor Issues

                Z23         Finance

                Z28         Policy

                Z29         Other


Z3           Tourism Economics

                Z30         General

                Z31         Industry Studies

                Z32         Tourism and Development

                Z33         Marketing and Finance

                Z38         Policy

                Z39         Other